"...Osborne worked jointly with Furniss to achieve a compromise with Haitians whereby the United States would withdraw its request in exchange for assurances that Haiti would not sell, lease or rent the Mole St. Nicholas to other foreign powers or investors."
P. 30: Mole St. N. "Despite its many advantages, both Johnson and Grant administrations declined repeated offers by Haitian revolutionaries to cede the Mole to the United States in return for assistance in Haiti's civil wars of 1866-69."
P. 31. James G. Blaine in 1889-91 "...engaged in a number of intrigues with Haitian revolutionaries and maintained constant pressure on the Haitian government to cede the Mole to the United States."
U.S. interested in:
Date: Thu, 26 Oct 1995 17:21:29 -0700 (PDT)
From Glenn Inghram:
Two sources of information regarding Haiti and the Mole Affair, as it related to Frederick Douglass (US minister to Haiti, 1889-1891):
- William McFeely, "Frederick Douglass" 1991 Ch 25 "Port-au-Prince" & Ch 26 "Mole St. Nicolas" (overview of Frederick Douglass and this affair)
- North American Review (periodical) September, 1891 "Haiti and the US: Inside History of the Negotiations for the Mole St. Nicolas" October, 1891 - Part II of the above Both of these articles are by Frederick Douglass - as a defense of his role in the affair and his "forced" resignation by the US State Dept.
- Does anyone know of any existing photos of the Mole St. Nicolas? Are there any widely available books about Haiti which show a photo? I have not come across any, but would like to by next Friday, so as to use it in a classroom lecture.
- Does anyone know why, for a time, after the revolution, "Haiti" was spelled "Hayti" (up until about 1915+/-) I had always assumed it was a Africanized spelling, much like "Creole" is sometimes spelled "Kreyol" I have come across no discussions of this variation in spelling.
Bob: for your chronology:
This event was perhaps one of the more humorous of US/Haitian relations of the 19th c. In 1856, the Guano Islands Act stated that, "whenever a citizen of the US discovers a deposit of guano on any island... [uninhabited], and takes possession of, the island can be considered as appertaining to the US." (some paraphrasing here) In 1858, Haiti and the US came into conflict over this act with regard to the island of Navassa. A US businessman had sought to dig guano on this island and claimed rights for the US. The Haitian gov't soon sent its small Navy to remove him. He left, but soon the US gov't and Navy was involved. Official negotiations did not result in Haiti convincing the US that the island was a part of Haitian territory. The humorous part of the story is that guano is "sea fowl excrement" So, don't think sugar and rum was the only thing the US was after in the Caribbean... (actually this guano makes excellent fertilizer, though I can't see sailing to the Caribbean for fertilizer!)
: Sources on Douglass and Mole St. Nicholas
I found the following sources in my own library. Most of these come up in my computer program as both Douglass and Mole. Some or the last few don't mention Douglass in my program, but may still have relevant material:Bob Corbettcorbetre@webster.edu
Reference from Bob Corbett's library on Mole St. Nicholas, especially relating to Frederick Douglass:
From Hans Schmidt's book:
"...engaged in a number of intrigues with Haitian revolutionaries and maintained constant pressure on the Haitian government to cede the Mole to the United States."
U.S. interested in:
Title: Haiti and the United States
Author: Montague, Ludwell Lee
Publisher: Duke Univ. Press
City/Vol.: Durham, NC
NEARING, Scott and Joseph Freeman
Pub/Period: Monthly Review Press
City/Volum: New York
Originally published in 1925 by B.W. Huebsch, Ind.
THE HAYTIAN QUESTION
Pub/Period: Louis Weiss and Co.
Notes: published under the pseudonym VERAX
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