P. 24 Chapman: "Under Bobadilla a beginning was made of the system of repartimiento (apportionment), whereby the Indians were divided among the colonists. In theory the main objective of the laws was that the Indians might thereby be Christianized and civilized, but in fact its principal feature was that they were made to serve as slaves in the fields and mines."
Note from Hanke, SPANISH STRUGGLE FOR JUSTICE
"In practice, the encomienda system was established by Columbus in 1499 after the failure of his attempt to impose a definite tribute on the Indians of Hispaniola. The pattern evolved that in the islands where there were relatively few Indians and were thus enabled to lead a relatively dignified and comfortable life under semi-feudal conditions. The encomienda, then, started with Columbus, when he assigned three hundred Indians to Spaniards. When Queen Isabella learned this, she asked her famous question: 'By what authority does the Admiral give my vassals away?'
"The encomienda was put on an institutional basis by the first royal governor, Nicolas de Ovando, who arrived in April 1502 at Hispaniola, principle seat of Spanish government during the first quarter-century after 1492. A great company of men was with him, some twenty-five hundred in all, but none of them had come to labor with their hands. Ovando carried instructions to take away the Indians from Spaniards, put them under the crown, and require them to pay tribute out of the daily wages they would earn. This attempt failed, and by royal order of December 20, 1503, Ovando was permitted to grant Indians."
Hanke says: That the Spanish took Indian women as concubines and there was a small population of mestizo children born of these unions.
However, as other authors point up, there are not only no people left today who are anything near full-blooded Taino's, but there are no remnants of people with noticeable Indian features, and there are virtually no cultural influences from Indian culture on the culture of Haiti.
Started by Ovando. Forced labor. "By the encomienda system, a Spanish colonist could be awarded a number of Indians to work for him. In return, the colonist was responsible for teaching them Christian principles, paying them wages and looking after them generally. In effect the Indian population was enslaved, and, within half a century, practically exterminated." p. 13. Augier.
Hispaniola became the base from which the other islands were conquered and the Indians were the help needed.
Gold and slave trading failed quickly. Hispaniola had ranching. Spanish introduced horses, mules, cattle, pigs, sheep and goats and also the wheel.
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