For several years I had this booklet at the top of my "most wanted" list. Finally, about
two years ago it turned up on e-bay and I won it!!
Note from Bob Corbett, July 7, 1999: I found this piece listed in the rare books collection of the St. Louis Public Library. However, I never managed to get down to the library to use it. Rather, I was able to borrow it from the only other library in the U.S. which is listed as having it in the OCLC. This booklet was published in 1904 by Perrin and Smith Printing in St. Louis. It is 29 pages long and about 6 x 9 in size. I have tried to imitate the form of the booklet as it appeared in 1904, and have used the spellings given in the text.
For several years I had this booklet at the top of my "most wanted" list. Finally, about two years ago it turned up on e-bay and I won it!!
As to its topography, the very name signifies a mountainous country, and one can readily appreciate the story of an English Admiral who, when asked by George III for a description of the island, crumpled up a sheet of paper in his hand, threw it on the table before his Majesty, and said: "Sire, Haiti looks like that." In truth there are two main mountain ranges running from east to west, their general character and that of their numerous branches being such as to divide the rest of the land up into valleys and plains, of which some on the coast are the sites of cities and villages, and others in the interior are of marvelous fertility. Some of the many mountain streams are navigable, and others serve to irrigate the fruitful plains and valleys. Forestry is in an undeveloped stage; trees which appear like forbidding shrubbery proving to be very large and such as might be useful in commerce. Some of these bear delicious fruits and some are laden with flowers of enchanting odors which can often be distinctly perceived for miles at sea.
With such an endowment of nature, Haiti's future in forestry is assured.
Port au Prince, Haiti's capital, lies 1,400 miles directly south of New York. Haiti is about the same distance east of the City of Mexico. Cuba is some 50 miles to the northwest, Puerto Rico the same distance to the east, while Jamaica lies 10 miles to the southwest of it. Materially, geographically and historically the island is, for several reasons one of the most remarkable places on this hemisphere. Some of the mountain peaks rise to the height of 10.000 feet, but none reach the frost line. Numerous bays and inlets afford safe anchorage and shelter for vessels, there being no less than eleven ports open to foreign commerce in the Haitian part of the island. Haiti contains eight well known mineral springs noted as health resorts. The three principal rivers are the Artibonite, tributary to Gonaive Gulf, the Trois-Rivers and La Grand Anse. In the interior are some quite large lakes. The climate is, of course, wholly tropical, and northerners find it somewhat enervating until acclimated. However, higher temperatures sometimes visit New York and Philadelphia than ever come to Haiti, and if the days seem intolerable, the nights are from ten to twenty degrees cooler, and are quite refreshing by comparison. This is true of Port an Prince, of which experienced naval officers have said that there is no more beautiful nor better site for a seaboard city anywhere.
The mountainous character of Haiti so diversifies its surface and provides different altitudes so that localities might easily be found there which would be more beneficial to northerners of weakly constitutions and impaired vitality than any of the places now frequented by them during the winter months. Past question Haiti is becoming a popular health resort, the balmy breezes and invigorating ocean currents bring new life and strength to her genial shores. On the authority of two able physicians, both foreigners, one of whom, Dr. Smith, an Englishman, practiced his profession there for more than thirty-five years, and the other, Dr. Terres, is a well known American, living at Port an Prince, the subjoined statements are given: "I have never," says Dr. Terres, "known a case of yellow fever here that was not brought from some other place." So that this dread disease is exotic in Haiti, and typhoid cases are very rare. For acute dysentery and other bowel troubles, Bright's disease and other kidney affections, Haiti is found to be an excellent resort. Cholera has never appeared there, and la grippe is by no means as severe there as in Europe or the United States. Dr. Terres also gives it as his opinion that Haiti is the more healthful than any other island in the Antilles, and that Port au Prince is certainly much more healthful than Kingston or Havana.
Dr. Smith observes that "away from the towns in the interior and rural districts but few diseases or distempers are known. Indeed the interior is so healthful as not to be at all the physcian's Eldorado. People die there, as they must die everywhere, but it is very seldom that we hear of any illness of a complicated or alarming character, such as is common in America and elsewhere."
All tropical countries are teeming with insect life; Haiti is no exception to the rule. Many of the ordinary pests do abound there, but generally speaking the most troublesome are less numerous in this section than elsewhere in the West Indies, a fact probably due to its peculiarly mountainous character, and there are no poisonous snakes and few of any kind there.
It is stated on scientific authority that there are forty different species of birds in Haiti, of which seventeen are indigenous and peculiar to it. It must he borne in mind, however, that the island has never yet been wholly subjected to the scrutiny of modern science in any respect. Certain it is that birds are very numerous everywhere. The ortolan and other toothsome birds are sold daily in the markets, and this is true of all the common domestic fowls and poultry. Horses, donkeys, horned cattle, sheep, goats, hogs, dogs, cats, etc., are common and generally plentiful. The horses were originally of the Andalusian breed, being spirited, strong, very hardy, and seldom intractable.
As the origin of the Republic of Haiti, its language, its traditions, the manners and social customs of its people are essentially French, so its laws and forms of legal procedure are based on those of France. The Code Napoleon, which has so strong a foothold in all countries of Latin origin, is probably more closely followed in Haiti than in any other of the American Republics. Indeed the codes in Haiti are, as far as possible, an exact copy of those prevailing in France.
Of course by right of discovery Columbus claimed this island for the crown of Spain, and here was founded the first Spanish Colony in the New World. But let us see what became of the one million aborigines found there by him: The early discovery of gold soon brought numbers of greedy adventurers who forced these natives to till the fertile soil and especially to toil in the mines and the streams where the precious metal was at first found in moderate abundance. The relentless colonists drove them on with pitiless rigor in spite of protest, revolt and resistance, until wealth poured into the laps of the rulers and ran in golden streams to the Spanish throne. Cities and villages sprang up and flourished; magnificence and splendor were the order of the day in Hispaniola. Spaniards loved to compare it with the splendors of Andalusia, and the colony became the commercial emporium of the New World. Meantime, it was found that under the cruel exaction the aborigines were rapidly declining in numbers. Indeed, so speedily did they decline that, according to one estimate, of the 1,000,000, whom Columbus found there, not more than 60,000 were left at the expiration of fifteen years.
As early as 1502 Africans were purchased from the Portugese, for servitude in the colony, to take the place of the natives who could not endure what was required of them. Many of the colonists rushed off to Peru and Mexico to the newly found mines there, taking with them their African slaves. This was the beginning of the end of the Spanish Colony. It never regained its former prestige.
The French occupation came about in this way: the policy of the Spaniards led them to keep up a strict police of the Antillean seas and to claim everything as theirs; so when war was declared between France and Spain, about 1520, England and France became allies, and both encouraged the fitting out of privateersmen to make reprisals in 3 Spanish waters. These happened to select different parts of the same island of St. Christopher for the base of their operations. Spain, in due season, sent out forces against them, destroyed their rendezvous, and drove them away. Those who escaped, especially the French, gathered on the island of Tortuga, on the northern coast of Haiti. This occurred about 1530, and was the beginning of the French occupation of the island. These colonists succeeded in maintaining themselves against the Spanish, until by and by they were a law and power unto themselves. By the treaty of Ryswick, 1697, Louis XIV. of France secured to his crown all that part of the island actually occupied by his subjects.
Owing to the peculiar conditions then existing, the government was soon in chaos, and the opportunity now came for the great self-emancipated black, Toussaint L'Ouverture, to forever distinguish himself. He was a most extraordinary character in many respects. Not of without some conceit, for when he indicated his willingness to confer the with Napoleon, he worded his message: "From the chief of the blacks to the chief of the whites."
It was in 1804 that Dessalines promulgated the Declaration of Haitian Independence which has since been maintained, notwithstanding that Napoleon's attempt to re-enslave the "rebel blacks," as he called them, cost him not less than 55,000 European troops and more than 200,000,000 francs.
The language of Haiti is French, which is spoken and written in all its purity by the educated classes. There prevails among the country people what is known as the creole dialect. It is an unwritten language and abounds in proverbs and quaint sayings, and very easy to acquire. In religion the Haitians are essentially Haitian Catholic, but perfect religious toleration exists. Haiti was an exception to all other countries in that when she asserted her independence, she boldly proclaimed religious freedom at the same time.
In the matter of education, due attention is being paid to both secular and religious instruction. The effort has been made to secure a native priesthood, and for that purpose the Grand Seminary of Haiti was established.
A noticeable feature in the work is the careful provision made for the education of girls. There are a large number of French nuns who are giving their time and talent in that direction, and under whose care are not less than 5,000 Haitian girls. This number does not, of course, include the girls in the public schools. Among other Christian denominations established, there are represented, Wesleyan Methodists, African Methodists, Baptists and Episcopalians, all of whom work in the same field without clash or friction, and the continual call of the Government is for more of them all.
At the capital there are quite a number of other schools which are quietly doing an important educational work. The medical college, the law school, the Lycee, or National College, the orphan girls' schools of the Sisters of Cluny, and many others, come under this head; and if is a fact, too, worthy of note, that in all the higher institutions the instructors are natives and foreigners, chosen for their approved character and competency.
Regarding citizenship and the privileges it confers, this right was until recently restricted to persons of African or Indian origin, and the right to possess real property goes with citizenship, yet the constitution expressly provides that every foreigner can become a citizen by fulfilling the regulations established by law. So that with her natural resources, inducements as to climate, products, situation, and her position as the most satisfactory form of Republican Government, Haiti presents claims to recognition which cannot and will not be ignored. And the million of citizens now basking in her sunshine invite a million more to come and share in the good things which Haiti has to offer to her subjects.
The great productiveness of the soil in Haiti is too well established to admit of the least doubt. There is no article of commerce produced in the tropics that is not found or could not be produced in Haiti. Apples, peaches, strawberries, blackberries, and other temperate-zone growths are to he found in the uplands. The soil seems to be especially adapted to the cultivation of the sugar cane. It grows there with remarkable rapidity and to astonisllillg proportions, sometimes attaining a height of more than 20 feet and a base diameter of 4 inches. One planting is sufficient for a number of years, as it resprouts after being cut. The products of this crop are rum, tafia, syrup, molasses and sugar. It is easy to see what a promising field lies open for this industry in Haiti. The long neglected cultivation of indigo could be easily revived and $2,000,000 annually realized from its export. The plant grows everywhere spontaneously and two full crops of it could be grown every year.
In tropical fruits which would prove profitable exports a great variety may be listed: Sweet and sour oranges, citrons, lemons, shaddocks, bananas, plantain, pineapples, cocoanuts, mangoes, sapotillas, alligator pears, artichokes, and the like. Probably the most popular of all the fruits of Haiti, except the plantain, which is used as a very nourishing food, at all seasons, is the mango. It ls estimated that during the height of the season (May and June) the sale of breadstuffs of all kinds falls off as much as 40 per cent on account of the consumption of the mango.
Another industry awaiting development is that of tobacco. The firms of J. Dejardin, Th. Luders & Co., of Port au Prince, have in the Diquini Plantation, near the capital, a very successful tobacco enterprise, and whose cigars of different kinds and sizes have received a gold medal at the St. Louis Fair.
Then again the number of plants in Haiti possessing marked and well-known medical qualities is quite extensive. In that connection we quote Mr. James Redpath. He says: "It is asserted by scientific men that the flora of Haiti only partly explored by Tussae, Descourtilz, and others contains still many secrets which, if known, would render invaluable aid to the medical art, for medical plants aboung there and everything that is brought for pharmaceutical purposes from Africa and South America is to be found in Haiti." And then Mr. Redpath enumerates by name more than one hundred and sixty of the plants supposed to be characterized by medicinal properties, many of which are familiar to the medical profession and are in constant and ever increasing demand wherever that profession has a footing. This is a positively neglected field of industry in Haiti; and the same is true of (1) starch-yielding articles like manioc, arrowroot, and others which are abundant; (2) comfits, preserves, sweetmeats of many and various kinds, dates, figs, tamarinds, guavas, and jellies of numerous varieties; (3) perfumes extracted from flower, fruit or plant, in fact, all ottars of vegetable origin for which there is an extensive and open market wherever even the most moderate forms of civilization prevail, and of which it may be said that there are scarcely any sold in the world that could not be produced in Haiti -- laden all over as it is with the innumerable flowers, and ottar-yielding fruits and plants of tropics; (4) fiber-yielding plants and material of which there is an abundant supply, notably the remarkably fibrous plant, ramie.
Since colonial times cotton has been made an important element of commerce and there can be no question as to the possibilities of success in the cultivation of this staple on a large scale in Haiti; here then is an other partially occupied field open for profitable enterprise.
The degree of production attained in her colonial days with a population of scarcely more than half of what she now has was considerable. In those days the articles of export in the order of their importance ad valorem, were, sugar, coffee, cotton, indigo, syrup, cocoa, hides, raw and tanned, sea shells, woods (mahogany, logwood and lignum vitae) and tafia.
The agriculture of Haiti is rising from the ruins heaped upon at sides by recent civil strife, and marked progress is being made under the present stable conditions.
As has been already indicated, this phase of industry in this country of wonderful possibilities has scarcely been initiated, so that its present undeveloped state affords ample opportunity and flattering inducement toward the investment of time and money by those who are seeking a sure and prompt return for such investment.
Owing to the fact that as the inhabited portions of the earth become more densely populated, the timbered lands are fast disappearing, and since only certain portions of the world produce certain woods, the importance of possessing a controlling interest in the market for fine cabinet woods such as flourish in Haiti, is not to be ignored. Exported woods are logwood, mahogany, guaiac, (lignum vitae), boisjaune, and bayarondes. The most important is mahogany, which is of excellent quality. Besides the main island there are other smaller islands off the coast of Haiti which are rich in varied resources. These are as follows:
1. La Gonaive, an island just in front of Port an Prince, the capital of Haiti, (70,000 inhabitants) is larger than the French colony Martinnique in West Indies. Only the edges of La Gonaive have been cleared for small fields of plantains and the erection of little fisher houses. The interior of that island is not at all inhabited and has never been systematically prospected with a view to ascertain the exact nature and amount of the riches it contains. It is known that an enormous quantity of every kind of woods is to be found there, and the splendid collection of woods exhibited at the St. Louis Fair by the Department of Agriculture of Haiti comes from that island. Around this island are great quantities of sponges of every degree of fineness. Specimens of these are to be seen in the exhibit in the Forestry Building. On the coast of the island are to be found numerous species of the turtle family, principally those of enormous size, which the native of the country call "carettes." They furnish the tortoise shell shown in the raw state, also polished and manufactured in the Haitian exhibit in the Forestry Building. This collection has received a gold medal.
A concession for the exploitation of this island has been granted by the government to a syndicate since about 1890 on consideration of a certain royalty which has never been paid to the Government, this syndicate not being in the necessary financial condition to develop the island. An understanding with the government for a new contract or with the old syndicate for the transfer of its rights would be an easy matter.
2. La Tortue, another island lying off the North coast, while smaller than La Gonaive, is nearly in the same condition, and business is there also possible.
3. Another island on the South coast, La Cayenite, is also covered with forest, and Mr. Hepple, a German merchant in Haiti, has been taking timber out for several years. No doubt an understanding with hini would be easy.
4. Along the right of way of a railroad in construction now by the government, that would probably turn over the concession to a company, is also a large quantity of woods, principally mahogany, cedar, logwood and pine, besides coffee and cocoa, all of them very good freight for the railroad. This line will open up a district where millions of tons of lignite are waiting for development and transportation. Certainly the timber business in Haiti would prove to be a very fine Investment for capital, but it is believed that the mining at Terre Neuve, Grande Riviere, Bekly, The Gold Placer Mines in the South, should attract special attention of capitalists, and for following reasons:
For Terre Neuve, Grand Riviere, Bekly, the mining concession has been already granted by the government and the grantees are willing to come to an understanding at once with serious capital to develop th mines, so that the capitalists could begin immediately their work an very profitably.
For working the gold placers a contract with the Cabinet would not take a very long time, while a change in the contract, or a new on for the woods and the development of the three above mentioned islands would require the vote of the Chambers, which would mean a longer time. Of course if any understanding with the grantees of these three islands is possible, which is likely, as they all need capital, the vote of the Chambers would not be necessary and the timber business could begin at the same time as the mining enterprises, at once.
It would be necessary to join an experienced timber man to the above mining and railroad engineers; the expenses of the voyage to Haiti would amount to nearly nothing. The trip from New York is made, by slow steamer, in five and a half days and the cost with a return ticket one hundred dollars ($100). Steamers Of 20 knots or of the speed of those running between New York and Europe, would make the trip in less than three days, and in shorter time from New Orleans, an indication to be noted for the quick transportation of fruits.
In case the mining engineer would like to do some work in the mining district it would be necessary for him to carry down dynamite, caps, fuse, hand drills, hammers, picks, shovels, wheel barrows, and other mining tools for rapid prospecting. It would be desirable for the railroad engineer to carry instruments for surveys to be made.
The General Commissioner of Haiti would go with the engineers to the big mining district, the Terre Neuve, and put his knowledge and experience of the country at their disposal for a successful trip to the mutual benefit of capital and of the country. He would also put them in connection with Mr. Thomasset for the copper, iron, platinum and iridosmiuln of the Grande Riviere and Bekly mines. He will introduce them willingly to the government and other officials of the country and do his best for the success of all enterprises that the capitalists may have in view in Haiti.
The Haitian exhibit at the World's Fair is located in the southwestern section (booth number 32) of the Forestry, Fish and Game Building, between the California exhibit and that of the U.S. Cartridge Co., of Lowell, Mass., covering a space Of 30 by 75 feet.
On approaching this exhibit one is distinctly impressed by its elegance, apparent at first glance, and attracted by the happy combination of utility and beauty. In the center is a most beautiful pavilion in which the following species of native wood are represented: Mahogany, Santa Maria, tacha, rosewood and tavernon. The woods most used in this construction are mahogany and Santa Maria. Most of the panels and all of the columns are made of these two woods, and they blend in such a manner that they look as if it were one and the same wood. The other varieties are used in the smaller decorations. The desired object in making this pavilion was to show to advantage the native cabinet woods of Haiti, especially that of Santa Maria, a wood which very much resembles mahogany and yet has certain superior qualities to mahogany, as it can be easily obtained in large dimensions and quantities, and at more favorable prices; moveover, it has a more attractive lustre when polished. Four columns of the pavilion are made of Santa Maria, one of mahogany and one partly of both. The result more than accomplishes the object mentioned.
From this pavilion are served the most delicious coffee and cocoa, native products, the Haitian coffee combining the finest aroma and flavor with the most sustaining power; the beans for this brand are most carefully selected, thoroughly cleaned, and roasted in such a manner as to free the essential oil. Needless to say this provision for rest and refreshment of World's Fair visitors is fully appreciated by them.
Just at the rear of the pavilion is a splendid display of imported liquers and sirops from the land of Haiti, as anisette, marasquino, repikes, creme de menthe, sirup d'orgeat, sirup de grenadine: and creme de cocoa. Also the triple distilled bay rum, and rum of very best quality from four distilleries in Haiti.
The manufacturers of five liquors and rums, whose goods ar exhibited are Barbenecynet, Sincque Tierre, Villyoints, Sylvain, rums As are rums: W. Romulus, assorted liquors; Blas Vierras, assorted liquors; F. H. Lucas, assorted liquors; P. Narcisse, bitters.
On either side are glass cases in which are shown other most interesting exhibits. First we see a collection of cigars and of beeswax in molds. Next a sectional case containing samples of cotton mapon used for the filling of mattresses and pillows being much cooler than silk or common cotton. Then the cocoa bean from which cocoa is made, also the coffee taken from the cherry, peanuts, sugar from the sugar cane, and also bottled honey.
In the next case are hides, leather and a collection of fine shoes made in Haiti. On the opposite side of the pagoda is a case containing the handiwork of the orphan children of St. Joseph's Orphan Academy, which is equal to any display of its kind at the Fair. The Orphan Girls' School, "La Madeleine," held by the Rev. Sisters of St. Joseph of Cluny under the government's and President Nord Alexis' personal protection, is also represented. Following is a list of this part of the exhibit: Skirt of Luxenil lace embroidered; baby bonnet of Luxenil lace; handkerchief, necktie, baby's dress, cushion, of Luxenil lace; pelisse of Luxenil lace; petticoat, baby's shoes, spindle lace, and embroideries; necktie of Brazilian lace; christening dress, sheet of Colbert's embroidery, embroidered pillow cases, upper cloth, bib and handkerchief of Luxenil lace.
Next this case is a display of coffee beans, then a very interesting one containing hats made from palm leaves and corn husks, and a most exquisitely beautiful tortoise shell hair ornament, representing a butterfly, also other tortoise shell ornaments.
The chairs are made from the osier, or water willow. Last, but by no means least, in the rear, is a cabin made from the natural woods imported from Haiti. The roof is covered with palm leaves. The entrance is draped with an American flag on the left and the flag of Haiti, which is red and blue, on the right. This Haitian flag is most deftly and daintily made, entirely by hand. In the interior can be seen a fine collection of hand carved vases, pedestals, mortar and pestles, bowls, urns, and tobacco boxes.
The Haitian Commissioner General is Edmond Roumain, from Port an Prince.
Dr. Leon Audain, from Port an Prince.
Commissioner, Mr. Joseph Duque, from Cape Haiti.
Commissioner, Mr. Price-Mars, from Grande Riviere.
Mr. W. Hepple, member of the syndicate of merchants, Port an Prince, concessionaire.
(Installed in the Palace of Forestry, Fish and Game.)
His Excellency le General Nord Alexis, President of Haiti --
Coffee from private property. Gold-medal.
Department of Agriculture --
Large collection of varied cabinet woods. Grand prize. Coffee, chocolate, cocoa in pod, arrow-root, ginger. Silver medal for coffee and arrow-root.
Pierre, S. M. --
Rum in kegs and in bottles; honey. Gold medal for the rum and bronze medal for the honey.
Romulus, D. --
Assorted liqueurs. Silver medal.
Lucas, F. H. --
Assorted liqueurs. Gold medal.
Longchamp, Z. --
Cotton. Silver medal.
Narcisse, P. --
Bitters. Bronze medal.
Camille, T. H. --
Congo and French peas, corn starch, ground corn, starch, insect killer, banana starch, corn, rice, red peas, millet, gigiri (made of millet), orange flower water, Eau de Melisse, Manioc starch, and preserved fruit.
Prophete, B. I --
Turbinated sugar (Ogorman & Vandreuil plantations), white and black peas, peanuts, Indian peas. Gold medal for sugar.
d'Aubigny & Cie --
Six kinds of soap-white, blue, yellow, transparent.
Villejoint, A. --
Three qualities of rum. Gold medal.
Barbancourt & Cie --
Four qualities of rum. Gold medal.
Vierras, Blas --
Five kinds of liqueurs. Silver medal.
Several kinds of coffee. Grand prize.
Dejardin, Th., Luders & Cie --
Assorted cigars, (Diquini tobacco plantation). Grand prize.
Sejourne, F. --
Sirop Pectoral, Elixir Pensylvanie, Eau de Melisse, Mont Carrel.
Archer, Stephen --
Coffee from Grand Bois, coffee from Saint Marc, (two kinds) coffee caracoli sort; wax, white and yellow; cocoa from Jeremie, black and yellow. Silver inedal for coffee and cocoa, bronze medal for wax. Kouri -- Soap (Tropical factory).
Three kinds of rum, mark "Drapeau." Silver medal.
Hepple, W. --
Cotton, sisel, ricinus seeds (castor oil), orange peel, ginger, cocoa, bees wax, ginger, mapon cotton. Silver medal for cotton.
Prin, Eugene --
Cigars, mark "Centenaire." Bronze medal.
Charles, Em --
Eau de cologne.
Oarno, C. Montagne --
Honey in comb.
Leger, Freres --
Department of Agriculture --
Chairs, arm chairs, sofas, prepared leathers.
Menos, G. --
Assorted bricks. Bronze medal.
Assorted shoes. Bronze medal.
Clermon, Fils --
Masonic jewels, thimbles.
Haitian embroidered flag, American embroidered flag.
Assorted shoes. Slver medal.
Hepple, W. --
Orphan Girls' School, "Le Madeleine," held by the Rev. Sisters of St Joseph of Clumy, under the Government's and President Nord Alexis' personal protection-
(Shirts of Luxeuil lace, embroidered.) Baby bonnet, Luxevil lace; handkerchiefs, neckties, baby's dress, cushion of Luxeuil lace, pelisse Luxeuil lace, petticoat, baby's shoes, spindle lace, embroideries, necktie of Brazilian lace, christening dress, sheet of Colbert's embroidery, embroidered pillow cases, upper cloth, bib and handkerchief of Luxeuil lace. Gold medal.
Department of Agriculture --
1 piece acoma wood, 1 piece oak, 1 piece mahogany, 5 pieces pitch pine, 2 oak boards, 2 pieces cedar wood, 1 set of articles of guaiac wood (lignum vitae). Part of the wood collection which obtained the grand prize.
Bouzon, T. --
Set of articles of lignurn vitae (guaiac), assorted mats. Bronze medal.
Wilhelm, Hepple & Co. --
Bag and rope of palm leaves, sisel rope, hats and blankets of palm leaves, logwood, maximien wood. Silver medal for wood collection.
Syndicate of Merchants of Port au Prince --
Pavilion of different kinds of Haitian furniture and construction woods for exhibiting, demonstrating and tasting the principal products of Haiti. Silver medal.
Department of Agriculture --
Curcuma (yellow dyeing root).
Hepple, Wilhelm --
Gum guaiac (lignum. vitae), palm tree leaves.
Camille, T. H. --
Bits, bridles, stirrups, spurs.
Gabriel, 0. --
Saddles, crupper and holster, bridles.
Syndicat Minier de Terre Neuve --
Copper and iron ores. Silver medal.
Edmond Roumain and Gentil Tippenhauer, engineer, collaborators --
For special services rendered in the development of the Terre Neuve mining district. Silver medal.
H. Thomasset, engineer --
Copper, iron, platinum and iridosmium ores from Grande Riviere and Bekly. Bronze medal.
Red ochre, ores.
Department of Agriculture --
Bouzon, J. --
Haitian maps. Bronze medal.
Hepple, W. & Co. --
Collection of orchids.
F. Mengual --
Two back hair combs of tortoise shell with butterfly ornamentation, paper cutter of tortoise shell, cigar holder of tortoise shell; photo frame of tortoise shell.
W. Hepple --
Sponges, tortoise shell.
Wilhelm Hepple & Co. --
Turenne Guillaunsette --
Leathers. Bronze medal.
J. Laville --
Chocolate. Gold medal.
8 Guayac -- Guaiacum officinale.
2 Baie a ondes--ou Bayaronde.
5 Bois de Quinquina -- Chincona-Luciaya, Chincona-Floribunda.
2 logs, 2 boards, 1 beam. Bois-chene -- Bignonia arborea.
2 Coquemolle -- Theophrasta americana.
2 Manquier -- Mangifera indica.
2 Bois Raisinier -- Cocoloba pubescens.
1 Acoma -- Sideroxylon mastichodendron, Xaumaliurn rascimiosum.
1 Tamarinier -- Tamarindus indica.
Mancenillier -- Hippomauc- mancenilla.
6 log Bois d' Acajou -- Swietenia mahogania.
Tavernon --a Barbes.
3 Bois de Rose -- Cordia-gerascaubus.
4 Chene noir d'Amerique --Catalpa longisiliqua.
3 Tendre acaillou --Acacia arborea, Mimosa tenuifolia.
3 Ebene noire -- Acacia Lebbek or Ebenus.
2 Bois-de fer jaune -- Sideroxylon Americanum.
Bois d' Ebene verte -- Tecoma leucoxylon-a-saratiplea.
Bois blanc. Simaruba officinalis.
Chene des Antilles, Bignomia arborea.
2 Bois mulate -- Pento aclethra filamentsa.
Bois de fer blanc Simaruba officinalis.
Oranger --Citrus aurantium.
Cedre -- Cedrela ordorata.
Goyavier -- Psidium pyriforurn.
Kenepier -- Melicocca bijuga.
Guayac -- Guaiacurn officinalis.
Bois Ebene verte.
All of which exhibits reflect much credit upon the most unique of independent republics, Haiti, the location, topography, and latitude of which, not to mention its vast resources and untold possibilities, justly entitle the island to much and favorable notice.
Nearly every published work on Haiti mentions "its immense mineral wealth," and it is an historical fact that its possession of valuable ore first hastened its occupation by stimulating European cupidity; and there are found the richest mines of copper and iron. In the vicinity of the Artibonite and of Aux Cayes are mines of lignite, and there can be no doubt of the existence of earth phosphates in quantities which would well repay commercial enterprise. Quartz veins in the slate formations are auriferous and so are the sands in the streams. In view of the fact that modern knowledge and skill have never been fully applied in mining there, it may be safely asserted that the possible results of that industry are still an open question. In the absence of any extended, thorough, and reliable geological survey of Haiti, it is impossible to assume any other conclusion than that untold wealth lies as yet undisturbed in her bosom and an almost boundless resource of commerce awaits further and more complete development.
I read in an old book, written in 1797 by Moreau de Saint Mery, at the time Haiti was a French colony, that in Terre Neuve, a district of the island, "the soil in an extent of several leagues is an iron and copper mine beginning from the surface and that no part of the world is perhaps as rich in this matter," I decided to prospect that district. In a very short time I found over 150 places where the copper and the iron outcrop.
We know now positively that from these numerous outcrops six are true copper quarries, the mineral in those six places forming blocks of twelve to fourteen feet above the level of the soil. One of those six places is an outcrop Of 319 feet, of which 124 feet are formed by the above mentioned big blocks, yielding an average of 12 per cent copper mixed with iron and lime, which makes the ore so valuable for fluxing purposes.
Prospects were also made by shaft and tunnels in one of the most important quarries ; the first tunnel on hillside is at 76 feet from the shaft, the second at 66 feet from the first, which makes 142 feet from the shaft, and in both the mineral bodies, copper and iron were struck.
Millions and millions of dollars worth of copper ore are at sight right at the surface, needing only to be blasted down before the true mining work would begin by tunneling and shafting. In some outcrops in those called Rocher and Reserve the copper ore is gold and silver bearing. Specimens cut off the vein known now to be over five feet wide at Rocher, gave to Mr. Chas. Merry, mining engineer of Columbia University:
Gold, ounce 0.50 (half of an ounce to the ton).
Silver, ounces 45 (forty-five ounces to the ton).
Copper, 20 per cent (twenty per cent).
In one other outcrop, at "Lhercour," the mineral is the so-called peacock ore, yielding right at the surface 27.83 per cent of copper. The iron ore found in the same district is magnetite of 67 per cent iron, and, according to analysis made in New York by Dr. Hugo Schweitzer in 1898, and in St. Louis by Regis Chauvenet and Brother in May, 1904, during World's Fair, is very suitable for steel.
Regis Chativenet and Brother, 620 Chestnut street, St. Louis, made the following analysis:
Metallic iron ... 67.52 per cent
Sulphur ........... 0.01 per cent
Phosphorus ........ 0.014 per cent
Silica ............... 3.67 per cent
They say: "This is a magnetic iron ore of excellent composition. The phosphorus and sulphur are far below Bessemer limits and the structure and general clean nature of the ore renders it specially nice to handle in shipment."
Besides the copper and iron found so abundantly in the district of Terre Neuve, on the northwest side of Haiti, there are also there:
1.Immense quarries of gypsum of excellent quality. The U. S. Gypsum Co. at the Louisiana Purchase, Exposition has shown how large and varied are to-day the uses of plaster obtained from gypsum.
2. Seven hot sulphur springs of 127 degrees Fahrenheit right at the surface,,which were largely used with the greatest success by the French government before the war of our Independence (1804). Those springs would be so valuable during the hard winter times for Americans suffering from bronchitis, pneumonia, consumption, diseases of the throat, rheumatism, the climate at Terre Neuve being besides very mild.
3. Large forests of timber which already before 1804 had excited the admiration of the Frenchman, as they had the island in their possession. (See Moreau de Sant Mery, Description de la partie francaise de Saint Domingue, in the chapter about Terre Neuve.)
4. Coffee is considered among the best products of Haiti, which produces coffee equal in its flavor and state to the best coffee of the world. The exhibit of Haiti at the St. Louis Fair in the Forestry Building, block 32, will furnish the proof of it at any time. The Superior jury in recognition of the very best quality of the Coffee from Haiti has given it a
5. Large quantities of fruit, among them very sweet oranges, of which twenty-one were bought last year for one American cent. The amount of oranges, bananas and other fruits could be easily increased and be an excellent bi-product for shipment from that district. All that is needed for the development of such a rich part of the island, is a little railroad Of 25 to 30 miles and a smelter for the copper ore. Large quantities of wood in the same district would supply as well this smelter as the railroad, besides coal (lignite) which we have also in very large amounts in the country, but not in the same district.
There is no doubt that the cost of railroad and smelter would be immediately covered, with large profit besides, only by the ore laying on the surface of the six quarries, putting aside what is to be extracted from the underground in numerous other outcrops. The railroad would be used also for general transportation of products of the country, of passengers, and add in that way to the profit resulting from the mines. The government of Haiti has granted to the Mining Syndicate of Terre Neuve:
1st. The concession of all the iron and copper found and to found at Terre Neuve.
2nd. The preference for all other metals and minerals to which further prospecting may lead.
The land over which the mining right has been granted is of very large extent and covers certainly more than a thousand of the American claims of 600 x 1500 feet.
The mines in Haiti belong to the nation and cannot be sold; they are only leased under royalty. The proprietor of a land owns only the surface and not the underground, which dispenses of a mining company going to a heavy expense to "buy out" a proprietor on whose land a mineral deposit would be found. The private proprietor receives only an indemnity, determined by experts for the partial or total loss of his crop or of the property ruined by the mining enterprise, and that is perfectly just. He receives also 5 per cent of the royalty to be given to the government. In the case of the concession granted to the "Syndicate Minier de Terre Neuve" (mining Syndicate of Terre -Neuve) the government's royalty is 5 per cent of the output, and 5 per cent would make a quarter per cent (1/4 per cent) for eventual owners of private land.
The Mining Syndicate of Terre Neuve is willing to transfer its mining rights on the most important part of the concession for copper mines and guarantees that the necessary work will be done for the development of the mines.
For other metals, ores and minerals besides copper and iron possibly found in them by the government or the "Syndicate Minier de Terre Neuve" concessions already granted, this syndicate will apply for new 27 concession from the government and transfer them in preference to above said party or syndicate on consideration of same conditions which others would offer to the "Syndicat Minier de Terre Neuve." These are the most important mines about Terre Neuve and the principal articles of a contract to be signed for the transfer of above mining right. As yet, the mining syndicate of Terre Neuve only wishes that a party or syndicate should send to Haiti next December a mining engineer and a railroad engineer who would control the above indications about the Terre Neuve district and many other mining regions and, if possible, would have the necessary legal power to sign a contract which would be drawn here at the mutual agreement of the party and of the Syndicate Minier de Terre Neuve," represented in the United States by Edmond Rournain, General Commissioner of Haiti at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.
1. At Grande Riviere and Bekly, north side of Haiti: Copper and iron mines. According to analysis made in Paris, France, for Mr. Thomasset, French civil engineer living in Haiti, platinum and iridosmium were found there in very large amount in quartz veins.
2. At Maissade: Enormous deposit of lignite, millions of tons.
3. In the South: Manganese ores (pyrolusite), right at the surface and very abundant.
4. In the South: Gold placer, with 3 (three) grammes of gold to the ton, value $2.06 to the ton.
A company is demonstrating now a gold placer in the Mexican exhibit in the Mining Building at the World's Fair in St. Louis, the sand yielding only $1.30 of gold to the ton. It is well known that in the United States they are washing gold sand containing only 0.40 (forty cents) gold to the ton; that would be five times less than in the Haitian river.
5. In the South: Considerable deposit of lignite.
6. Cinabar exists surely in Haiti, and a very best specimen of it is on exhibition now at the World's Fair in St. Louis in the Mining Building, block 2. The district where this valuable ore has been found in the past is well known, but the right spot, the outcrop itself, has been covered, as it seems, by alluvium carried from the mountains during the rainy season. Careful prospecting by experienced mining men will very probably lead to the outcrop.
7. Petroleum has been found several times near one of the large coal deposits.
8. Chromic iron exists in Haiti. Analyses of the ore have been made in England by Mr. Dutton, British Consul in the town of Aux Cayes. Several indications from the French colonial time are also known with reference to this ore, The exact location of the outcrop has been lost since, but could be easily found by prospecting, the district being exactly known.
A mining company with large means could obtain concessions for all these mines provided that this company would develop them when the concessions would be granted. The General Commissioner for Haiti at the St. Louis Pair declares that as soon as a mining syndicate (ITALICS would prove to be backed by serious capital,) the best investments will wait for its money in the development of the mineral riches of Haiti, for which the government has received a
at the World's Fair. Many other very Good investments for capital wit be found also, and the General Commissioner states that full protection will be given by the government to those who are willing to place their money in Haiti, where labor is also cheap. This island, only 1,350 miles from New York, and much less from New Orleans, justifies fully by its untouched natural resources and riches in every line the right name given to it:
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