A researcher decides to examine the effect of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior in children. Children were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Group A consisted on 20 children who spent thirty minutes playing a violent video game: Ninja Death Fighters. Group B consisted of 20 children who spent thirty minutes playing a nonviolent video game: Baseball Two-D. Following the time spent playing the video game, the children were allowed to play in a room equiped with a variety of toys including a Bobo doll. The number of aggressive acts, aggressive verbalizations, and the number of times the Bobo doll was struck by each child was recorded. Children in Group A exhibited a significantly greater number aggressive behaviors on all three measures. The researchers conclude that playing violent video games may lead to aggressive behavior in children.
A researcher examines the effect of walking exercise on reaction time in older adults. Subjects recorded the length and time spent walking on a daily basis. Once a week, subjects turned in their daily logs to the researcher and reaction time measures were taken. After the six month time period, all the data was examined. Clearly, the greater the amount of exercise, the better the reaction time. The researcher concludes that exercise leads to better reaction time.
A researcher tested the effect of caffeine on sleep. Forty students volunteered to participate in the study and signed up for one of two nights. Students on Tuesday night drank a cup of regular coffee and students on Wednesday night received a cup of de-caff coffee. Students then took a nap and length of time to fall asleep was recorded with the aid of an EEG. Students in the caffeine group took significantly longer to fall asleep. The researcher concludes that caffeine interferes with the ability to fall asleep.
A researcher examines the difference in dog breed on length of time to learn basic commands. Four breeds of dogs were tested: standard poodles, greyhounds, fox terriers, and shar peis. Ten dogs of each breed were given basic obedience training and length of time to learn basic commands was recorded. Fox terriers took significantly less time to learn basic commands. No significant differences were found amoung the other three breeds. The researcher concludes that fox terriers have an inherently greater capacity to learn quickly as compared to the other three breeds.
A company is interested in determining if a wellness program can reduce absenteeism. The company has main offices buildings located in seperate cities. They decide to conduct their study, in their office building of two cities. In city A, the company puts in a health club and provides wellness information. In city B, the company instituted neither program. Absenteeism after a years time was significantly lower in city A. The company concludes that the wellness program works and puts in health centers and distributes wellness information in all of their main offices around the country.
A researcher tests the effect of listening to instumental music on learning of material in a psychology book. Subjects (college students) are randomly assigned to groups and all tested during one time of testing. Group A wears headphones and listens to instrumental music and Group B wears headphones but no music is being played (The music is the same for all subjects in Groups A ). Each are given an equal amount of time to study and then tested over the material. Group A performs significantly poorer. The students participating in the study are unaware of the hypothesis and the person scoring the examines is unaware of which group the subjects were in. The researcher concludes that listening to instrumental music may be detrimental to learning.
A researcher examines the effect of eating sugar on the development of cavities. Subjects keep a log of how much sugar they eat over a six month period of time following a dental check-up. After the six month time period, they are re-examined and the number of new cavities recorded. Those who consumed a great deal of sugar had more cavities than those who consumed little sugar. The researcher concludes that sugar consumtion causes cavities.
A researcher is testing a new drug for hypertension. Hypertensive patients are randomly assigned to two groups. Group A receives the placebo and Group B receives the new drug. Neither the patients of the persons administering the drugs know who is in which group. Following continued evaluation of the patients for two months, it is clear that there is no difference in blood pressure levels between the two groups. The researchers concludes that the drug is ineffective for the treatment of hypertension.
A researcher examines life satisfaction between younger and older adults. Each group is administered a life satisfaction questionnaire. The results demonstrate that older adults have significantly higher life satisfaction than younger adults. The researchers conclude that as one ages, an individuals life satisfaction increases.
A company is interested in determining if the color of the packaging of their product will influence sales. Twenty Kroger stores were randomly selected to participate in the study. The product packaged in red is placed on the shelf in ten stores and the product packaged in blue is placed on the shelf in the other ten stores. The determination as to which store received which color packaging was random. Over a six month period of time more of the product packaged in red is purchased. The researchers conclude that the color red must be more appealing and results in greater sales.